Maintaining the quality of raw materials is essential to producing a high-quality finished product. For garments, this means inspecting fabrics, sewing thread, and trims to make sure they meet specific quality standards. This process can be done using a specific standardized procedure (SOP).
What is fabric inspection?
Fabric inspection is an essential part of the production process. It ensures that the fabric meets quality standards and specifications. Fabric inspectors are responsible for checking the raw material before it enters into production, as well as finished products to ensure they meet safety regulations. The workwear fabric inspector needs to be aware of all aspects of textile manufacturing and have a good understanding of the variety of fabrics used in this industry. This article provides information on what is fabric inspection, how it works, and why it’s important for maintaining quality control.
Why is fabric inspection important?
Fabric inspection is important because it ensures that the fabrics used in the production of workwear meet quality standards. If fabric defects are not detected and corrected early on, they can lead to reduced productivity or increased overheads down the line. By conducting regular fabric inspections, factories can avoid these problems and ensure that their workwear meets the highest quality standards.
3 types of the fabric inspection system
- The 10-point system is another popular option, although it is less commonly used than the 4-point system. With the 10-point system, fabric defects are given a point value between 0 and 9, with 9 being the highest deduction for major defects.
- There is the Dallas system, which is based on a pass/fail grading scale. With this system, fabrics are either graded as A, B, C, or D, with A being the best grade and D being the worst.
- The most commonly used is the 4-point system. The 4-point system is based on penalty points, with deductions ranging from 1 to 4 points. Points are deducted for major defects such as color inconsistency, low weight, poor appearance, and other quality issues.
Based on the various fabric inspection systems, This four-point system is the most commonly used in the apparel and textile industry which is based on the ASTM D5430-93 standard, specifies how fabric defects should be identified and graded. In this system, defects are marked with points and given a demerit value based on their severity.
Things to know about 4 point fabric inspection system
The 4-Point System, also called the American Apparel Manufacturers (AAMA) point-grading system for determining fabric quality, to use this system need to know the following things:
– The different types of fabric defects
– How an error looks and its appearance
– Criteria of giving penalty points based on defects and defect length
– Calculation method of total penalty points for total defects found in a fabric roll or than
– A Check sheet or format for recording data
Fabric Defects Classification
When inspecting fabric, it’s important to use a system that accurately reflects the severity of any defects found. The four-point system is one such system, which assigns 1, 2, 3, or 4 penalty points depending on the size, quality, and significance of the defect. No more than 4 points can be assigned for any single flaw, and only major defects are considered. This system helps to ensure that any flaws found are accurately and fairly graded, so that appropriate action can be taken.
|From 0 > 3″ length/width||Up to 75mm|| 1 point|
|From 3.1″ > 6″ length/width||75mm > 150mm|| 2 points|
|From 6.1″ > 9″ length/width||150mm > 230mm|| 3 points|
|More than 9″ length/width||More than 230mm|| 4 points|
How to identify
- For continuous and regular defects, 1 yard is worth 4 points. Consecutive 3 yards or more will be treated as unqualified products.
- Any piece having a running defect through more than three continuous linear meters or yards shall be rejected. This defect will be counted regardless of the number of points it may have.
- Defects in the full-width (the following defects are not allowed in qualified products)
- Full-width defects longer than 6 inches
- Relatively small full-width defects, more than 5 within 100 yards
- Taking 100 yards as a unit, there are more than 2 serious defects in every 10 yards.
- There are serious defects or defects in the whole fabric within 3 yards of the fabric head and tail.
- When laying flat, it can be seen that there are defects such as edge crepe, shrinkage wrinkle, wave wrinkle, wrinkle strip, etc.
- A hole or torn is considered to be a major defect and shall be penalized four points.
- Fabric Construction and Weight: No tolerance will be allowed for defects in fabric construction or weight.
- The distance between defects should be more than 20 meters.
- Waviness, tightness, ripples, puckering in the body of fabric which would prevent the fabric from lying flat when spread in a conventional manner is not acceptable. This can cause the fabric to look distorted, and in some cases, may make it difficult to sew. Fabric with these defects will likely be rejected.
|Defect Length||Penalty Point|
|7 cm or less / 3 inches or less||1|
|8 to 15 cm / 3 to 6 inches||2|
|16 to 22 cm / 6 to 9 inches||3|
|Over 22 cm / Over 9 inches||4|
| Holes and Openings|
2.5 cm or less / 1 inch or less
| Holes and Openings|
Over 2.5 cm / Over 1 inch
Which defect on fabric will be rejected?
- Frequent kinks, knots, slub, contamination, spots, etc
- Continuous defect.
- More than the one-meter broken end, double end, wrong draw reed mark.
- Holes were torn and floated above ¼“
- Irregular selvage, light weft bar, count variation, Lecco, shade variation.
- Heavy weft bar above 6: in length
What are Inspection Procedures?
- Fabric inspection is done in a safe and suitable environment with proper ventilation and lighting.
- The fabric must be inspected at a 45-60 degree angle and must be done under appropriate Cool White light 2 F96 fluorescent bulbs.
- Fabric speed on the inspection machine must not be more than 15 yards per minute.
- Shade continuity within a roll must be evaluated and documented by checking shade variation between center and selvage, and the beginning, middle, and end of each roll.
- Fabric must be evaluated for weight against standard approved weight. This will ensure that all textiles meet the required weight specifications.
- In order to check the fabric width, it is important to measure it from selvage to selvage.
- All defects on fabric must be flagged during the inspection. This includes any type of defect, no matter how minor it may seem.
- Compare the length of each roll to the length listed on the ticketed tag
- If dyed or printed fabrics are being inspected, the repeat measurement must be done from the beginning, middle, and end of selected rolls.
- When packing workwear fabric, it is important to ensure that the correct identification stickers, shipping marks, packing lists, fabric roll and packing quantity are checked against the requirements and specifications. This will help to avoid any mistakes or issues during the fabric inspection process.
How to Calculation of total points?
Points per 100 square meters =(Total points per roll x 10000) / Length inspected (meter) x cuttable width (cm)
If you’re looking for a passing score that is less than 20 points per 100 square meters, you can use a lower number to make sure your fabric is of high quality. Anything that falls below this number may be cause for concern and could lead to the fabric being rejected.
What is an acceptable level?
An acceptable level of points per 100 linear yards or points per 100 square yards is different for different fabric types. For example, for Cotton Twill/Denim, 28 points per 100 square yards are acceptable, for synthetic fabrics 20 points acceptable. Make sure to check the specific requirements for the type of fabric you’re inspecting. Always follow the manufacturer’s guidelines to ensure you’re inspecting your fabric correctly.
The fabric quality inspection sheet
The inspection sheet is used to document the defects found during an inspection. The sheet includes general details, the lot number of the fabric, the size and type of defects, and a summary of all the defects found. The sheet should also include the quantity inspected and the total penalty points assigned. The final result of the fabric lot should also be documented.
Inspecting fabric is a crucial step in the production process, and it’s important to follow these guidelines to make sure you’re doing your workwear fabric inspection correctly. In order to do so, we recommend that all defects be flagged during an inspection of any type of defect no matter how minor it may seem. The final result should also be documented on the required Inspection Sheet for use in future inspections or tracking purposes.
All fabric produced by LEVITEX are following the inspection SOP to guarantee the quality of fabric. At the same time, if you need advice about what types of fabrics are best suited for different applications as well as tips for inspecting each type accurately and efficiently, please contact LEVITEX.